The most common mechanism of HPV infection: how is human papillomavirus transmitted?

Papillomavirus infection (PVI) - belongs to the group of anthroponotic pathogens (transmitted exclusively from person to person).

The route of infection is determined by several options for the development of events: through sexual intercourse, through blood, by household means (with a latent form of the disease - "warts").

how human papillomavirus is transmitted

Methods of infection

As mentioned above, there are only three main ways of infection - through sexual contact, through blood, by household means.

Penetrating through the protective barriers of the skin, mucous membranes, and circulatory system, HPV has a very negative impact on the health of patients.

Usually, a person experiences:

  1. Persistent weakness.
  2. Nausea, heaviness in the hypochondrium.
  3. Pain syndrome.
  4. Problems with the urinary and reproductive systems (difficulty urinating, the appearance of sharp paroxysmal pain in the perineum).
  5. Burning sensation in the groin.
  6. Dizziness against the background of frequent increase in body temperature.
  7. General decline in the protective function of the body (frequent colds, long recovery period after illness).
  8. Itchy skin, accompanied by the appearance of papillomas.

To recognize the presence of a viral infection and consult a doctor in a timely manner, it is necessary to take into account the prerequisites for the occurrence of the disease.

Prerequisites for infection

The most common prerequisites for the occurrence of HPV include:

  1. Weak immunity.
  2. The presence of other chronic diseases that weaken the body's resistance to all kinds of attacks from the outside.
  3. We are talking about hepatitis, human immune deficiency (HIV), cardiovascular disease, genetic anomalies, rare forms of hereditary diseases.
  4. Free sex.
  5. Unprotected sexual intercourse.
  6. Infections from loved ones in everyday life: when using dishes, bed linen, towels, with a kiss, a hug.
  7. Use of cultural and recreational public places.
  8. Visit a beauty salon.
  9. Share personal items: combs, manicure accessories.


Timely vaccination will protect against the most aggressive types of viruses.

Delivery route

The papilloma virus is spread through body contact, transplacental (transferred from an infected surface), with the help of cerebrospinal fluid (blood, saliva, sweat).

Therefore, if there are sick people in the family, it is necessary to constantly treat all surfaces with special antiseptics, follow strict rules of personal contact and monitor the condition of the skin (even micro cracks can be the initial area of damage).

Can HPV be transmitted through household contact?

Papillomavirus infection is perfectly transmitted through common objects, as well as by saliva. This should not be forgotten if there are sick people in the house.

Distribution mechanism:

  1. Kissing, hugging. With saliva and sweat, PVI moves from one person to another. This may be due to the fact that the virus moves freely through the mucous membranes, is found in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. When using personal hygiene items belonging to the patient.
  3. When shaking hands. Skin microtraumas can be excellent conductors of infection.
  4. When using a shared appliance.
  5. When transferring something, the object from an infected person to a healthy person (this type of infection is very resistant to the influence of environmental factors).

Can HPV be sexually transmitted?

Since the mucous membrane, skin and its derivatives (secretions, blood vessels, saliva) are carriers of genetic material, it is possible to be infected with human papillomavirus through sexual contact; as well as when using public baths, saunas.

Delivery mechanism:

  1. Directly during sexual intercourse (this is especially true for oral and anal sex).
  2. When using a shared shower, bath, sauna. Without proper antiseptic and antibacterial treatment, such a place is a breeding ground for all kinds of infections.
  3. When using underwear and couples clothing (especially for women who like to wear men's shirts, T-shirts, shorts, family shorts).

Is the virus transmitted from mother to child?

The transmission of infection from mother to child is called the "vertical transmission route". This type of papillomavirus transmission is one of the most dangerous, as it injures the body and intellect of children.

After undergoing HPV, especially in the early stages (1 trimeter), doctors insisted on having an abortion for medical reasons.

Auto -infection

Self -infection is only possible if untreated hygiene items are used. Examples: razors, toothbrushes, nail clippers and similar items.

With this form of papilloma virus transmission, patients do not feel uncomfortable for a long time and lead a normal life. And when the first symptoms of the disease appeared (which is very similar to superficial overwork), he ignored it without going to the doctor.

What are the most dangerous types of HPV?

The most dangerous types of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) include types 16 and 18. They have strains that give rise to the appearance of malignant neoplasms - cancerous tumors that, when developed, can metastasize.

The most common manifestations of exposure to viral strains are the occurrence of diseases such as: cervical cancer, infertility, lung and bronchial changes, acute immunoglobulin deficiency.

Notes! Cervical cancer can only occur because of the most aggressive form of the virus. Most papillomas are harmless.


To detect the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in the body, some of the most complex hardware techniques help.

  • Colposcopy. The colposcope is a medical device that allows you to accurately determine changes in the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system: to detect inflammation, damage and spread of viruses, fungal bacteria. Its use to determine the presence of HPV in the body is used to ultimately confirm the diagnosis. The device is capable of: under 30 -fold magnification, finding the source of inflammation, determining its nature, taking direct abrasion on the affected area.
  • PCR examination. This laboratory method is the differential diagnosis of this type of disease. PCR makes it difficult to determine the type of virus, but also the route of infection. For this analysis, sampling of biomaterials is required: blood, urine, sperm.
  • Digene exam. Modern diagnostic techniques are based on the separation of small areas of affected skin for study. Using this approach, physicians can tell 100% exactly what type of virus is present in the body, what its concentration is, whether in the form of reactive, antiviral drugs to which there is sensitivity.
  • Cytology. It is a study of problems at the cellular level. For this, the top layer of the papilloma is removed, a separate part of the mucous membrane is taken. With the help of a heavy -duty microscope and a basic set of reagents, laboratory assistants study the behavior of the virus, its effect on the body (make predictions), the degree of damage to the body's internal systems.
  • Histological diagnosis. The purpose of this technique is to study morphological changes in tissues. Material for the study was taken using biopsy.


Treatment of Human Papilloma Virus involves strict adherence to sexual abstinence, the use of broad -spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulatory drugs, vitamin complexes, and medications to reduce the effects of the virus on the body.

You should also limit healthy people’s access to personal items, hygiene products, crockery and bedding. When a virus -induced malignant neoplasm appears, corrective treatment or surgical intervention with a long recovery period is performed.

Ways to prevent disease

The main ways to prevent HPV are:

  • Compliance with the rules of provision of sanitary and domestic residential space.
  • Contraceptive use.
  • Control over one's own health condition from a specialized specialist.
  • Use of personal hygiene products strictly for their intended purpose, without transferring them to third parties.
  • No travel to places at high risk of infection: baths, saunas, swimming pools, water parks, massages and beauty salons.
  • Skin protection from interaction with a large number of external factors.
  • Protect your health by isolating yourself from those who are ill with any infectious and viral diseases, skin diseases.

It is impossible to cope with a complex viral infection on its own. Medical control, timely appeal for qualified help to a broad group of specialists will be the first and most serious step in addressing existing problems.

If such a problem occurs, one of the family members should immediately undergo a routine diagnosis and follow all the doctor's instructions to prevent the transmission of the virus. In addition, we should not forget about the precautions that will help prevent infection.