Human papillomavirus: typing and genotyping

like what is the human papillomavirus

More than 120 types of HPV are known medically, which are classified using a variety of approaches. There is a summary table of the main types of viruses, compiled based on the results of large -scale screening studies:


Kind of


Plantar warts

1, 2, 4

Ordinary warts

2, 4, 26, 27, 29, 57

Flat warts

3, 10, 28, 49

Flesh warts


Warts Epidermodysplasia

5, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 19, 36

Skin lesions without warts

37, 38

Genital mucous membranes:

Genital warts

6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 54

Nonondylomatous lesions

6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 42, 43, 51, 52, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 61, 64, 67, 68, 69, 70


16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 54, 56, 66, 68

Non -genital mucous membrane lesions:

Papilloma of the larynx

6, 11, 30

Carcinoma of the neck, tongue

2, 6, 11, 16, 18, 30

All neoplasms are divided according to oncological hazard, localization and form of skin growth.

  1. Localization of infection: Alpha - affects the mucous membranes of the genital organs in men and women, which is indicated by condyloma. Beta - affects the surface layer of the epidermis, manifesting itself on the surface layer of the epidermis with classic warts.
  2. The genotype of a virus determines its oncogenic potential, i. e. the ability to cause oncological degeneration of infected tissue. Genotype distinguishes this type of infection by risk of oncogenicity: Low risk - 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, 53, 54, 55. Medium - 30, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 58, 66 High risk -16, 18, 45, 56.
  3. Forms of skin neoplasms. Papillomas are divided into five main categories. The simple type is the most common type of growth. As it develops, a warm color keratinized tubercle is formed. Warts are localized on the skin, individually and in groups. Often occurs on the inside and outside of the hands, the lower part of the face (lips, chin). There is also plantar growth. Flatten - has a dark color and appears as small lumps on the skin. As a rule, they appear on the upper part of the body, more rarely on the genitals. Often they make themselves felt in adolescence with immune system failure, which arises in the neck and arms. Spots - condylomas affect the mucous membranes and are included in the category of oncogenic risk. Filiform - acrochord or senile papilloma occurs in middle -aged and elderly people. Internal moles - localized on internal organsThis category includes condylomas on the abdominal wall and rectum, growths in the mouth and bladder.

Methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention depend on the type of neoplasm detected.

Human papillomavirus is at high risk

HPV is one of the most common viruses. Often, the infection occurs through sexual and domestic contact. Over the years, the virus can become inactive and non-contagious. It can be activated by a variety of factors, such as a weakened immune system or chronic disease.

High -risk human papillomavirus is very dangerous. This category includes:

  • Average toxicity - 30, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 58, 66
  • High carcinogenicity - 16, 18, 45, 56, 59, 68.

Oncogenic human papillomavirus

Carcinogenic HPV is a serious danger, i. e. a virus that can cause degeneration of healthy cells. Risk groups include the following genotypes: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 68, 56, 58, 39, 70. They increase the likelihood of developing genital, uterine, anal and urethral cancers.

Oncogenic viruses are indicated by genital warts. Their appearance is a signal to seek medical help and get rid of the neoplasm.

Human papillomavirus 1

These infectious agents give rise to the development of common heels and warts. Often, with this papillomavirus, deep lesions appear on the foot, causing discomfort and pain to the wearer. Bumps can form on the back of the hands and chin. In some cases, it appears on the eyelids, scalp, fingers and toes.

This type of virus has low oncogenicity. At the same time, it is impossible to remove it completely from the body. Modern medicine is able to stop its activity temporarily. The treatment aims to eliminate aesthetic problems, i. e. eliminate growth. In the future, therapies are carried out to boost the defenses of the immune system. It is mandatory to prescribe drugs that prevent papillomatosis.

Human papillomavirus 4

Another common form of viral disease. Manifested by common heels and warts. As the growths develop, they darken and acquire a rough surface. In some cases, smaller formations form around one large wart.

Patients complain of itching, burning and pain in the affected area. HPV 4 also induces the development of calluses and calluses on the soles of the feet.

This genotype does not pose a risk of malignant transformation. For treatment, surgery to remove the growth is used with further immunotherapy of the patient.

Human papillomavirus 5

Responsible for the development of various types of growth. Often, papillomavirus 5 leads to the appearance of warts or verruciform epidermodysplasia. The disease is rare and manifests itself as a large accumulation of warts. The pathological condition develops at a young age and persists throughout life. According to statistics, women are more likely to get sick than men.

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EVL) is essentially a unique predisposition of the epidermis to papillomavirus infection. In this case, HPV 5 has a high carcinogenicity, i. e. the risk of skin degeneration turning into squamous cell carcinoma.

Typical symptoms of epidermodysplasia:

  • The growth of small warts that merge into large wounds as they grow.
  • The rash appears on the face, back, neck, abdomen, and also on the back.
  • When the skin is damaged, a linear wart structure appears at the site of the wound.
  • On the body and limbs, the growth is larger and denser than on the face and neck.

Human papillomavirus 6

HPV type six is diagnosed in middle -aged people and the elderly. The neoplasm is pink or flesh -colored and resembles cauliflower. This type of papillomavirus belongs to the group of infections with low oncogenicity and increases the risk of such pathologies:

  • Genital warts (condyloma).
  • Papillomatosis of the larynx.
  • Genital lesions are not condylomatosis.
  • Conjunctival papilloma.

Treatment consists of antiviral therapy and rehabilitation, surgical removal of the neoplasm. Particular attention is paid to preventive measures: personal hygiene, balanced diet, increased immunity.

Human papillomavirus 7

As a result of HPV 7 infection, butcher warts or Butcher warts appear on the skin. They represent painless light brown growths most often localized in the elbows and shoulders.

Butcher warts occur in people who are often exposed to raw meat. The infection enters the skin through small wounds. Growths appear on the elbows and hands in a prominent and painless form.

Human papillomavirus 11

Papillomavirus type 11 is most often diagnosed in women, and it manifests itself as genital warts. The pathological process involves the skin and mucous membranes. This HPV has low carcinogenicity, that is, it does not easily undergo malignant transformation.

Men and women who are sexually active and frequently change sexual partners are at risk of getting the disease. Infections can occur with other genital infections. When infected with genome 11, the pathogen is inserted into a set of human chromosomes, infecting the carrier daughter cells.

The main symptoms of this disease are:

  • Single or multiple rash.
  • Growths in women appear in the labia, cervix, clitoris, urethra.
  • In men, neoplasms appear on the head and body of the penis, scrotum, frenum.
  • In both sexes, papillomas have adjacent localizations: anus, perineum, oropharynx, bladder, perianal area.

Diagnostics are carried out according to the type of casting structure and are not difficult. It is impossible to completely destroy the virus, but there are a number of therapeutic methods that can suppress its activity. For this, special drugs are used. Code crushing methods, laser therapy and other surgical techniques are used to eliminate skin changes.

Prevention of HPV 11 infection is based on adherence to contraceptive barrier methods to prevent infection during sexual intercourse. It is also recommended to strengthen the immune system to enhance its protective properties.

Human papillomavirus 12

Under the action of certain factors, HPV 12 can manifest itself as verruciform epidermodysplasia or warts. This pathological condition is also called Lewandowski-Lutz disease. It refers to a genetic disorder.

Papillomavirus 12 requires a thorough diagnosis. This is due to the fact that the disease it causes can lead to severe dermatological defects and severe complications. In patients, , transformation of the affected tissue into squamous cell carcinoma is observed.

Human papillomavirus 16

One of the most common papillomaviruses, diagnosed in 60% of people, is HPV 16 (Human papillomavirus). This type of infection is oncogenic and leads to the following pathologies:

  • Genital lesions are not condylomatosis.
  • Genital carcinoma.
  • Carcinoma of the neck, tongue.

Once infected, the virus is inserted into areas of healthy cell DNA, thus disrupting the body’s natural anti-tumor immunity. According to statistics, in 42% of cases, the 16th genotype is the leading cause of cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus 18

One of the most common urogenital viral infections is papillomatosis. Type 18 of this infection is associated with diseases such as HPV 16: cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer. It has high toxicity. Insertion in the human genome provokes the growth of benign growths, which gradually degenerate into cancer. In 70% of cases, HPV 18 is detected in women with uterine cancer.

Treatment is prescribed only after a comprehensive diagnosis and the possibility of malignancy of the neoplasm. Therapy consists of growth removal surgery, 2-3 courses of antiviral medication and immunostimulation. At the same time, one should take into account the fact that today there are no drugs that completely neutralize the 18th genotype of papillomavirus.

Human papillomavirus 21

Another type of infection that causes epidermodysplasia verruciformis is HPV 21. At the same time, it includes viruses with low carcinogenicity. Often it manifests itself as anogenital warts and laryngeal papillomatosis.

Since the infection does not penetrate the bloodstream, but only affects the skin, then for diagnosis, epidermal sections and smears from the mucous membranes are used. The complex treatment aims to eliminate skin blemishes and strengthen the immune system.

Human papillomavirus 31

To date, more than a hundred papillomaviruses are known, among which there are oncogenic, i. e. those that can provoke vicious processes in the body. HPV 31 refers to an infection of moderate carcinogenicity, which, under the influence of certain factors, causes oncological lesions.

31 genotypes are associated with the following diseases:

  • Neoplasia severity 2 and 3 degrees.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Penis cancer.
  • Anal cancer.
  • Cancer of the oral cavity and larynx.
  • Bowen's disease.
  • Erythroplasia of Keira.
  • Dental complications.

Infections most often occur during unprotected intercourse and pose the same danger for women and men. Infection may occur when the virus comes in contact with an open wound or during the birth process, i. e. transmission from mother to child.

Human papillomavirus 33

This type of HPV is most often diagnosed in women, as it contributes to the development of such diseases:

  • Genital lesions are not condylomatosis.
  • Genital carcinoma.
  • Cervical dysplasia.
  • Cervical cancer.

The pathological condition is considered anthropomorphic, the infection occurs only between people. 2-4 months after HPV 33 enters the body, genital warts begin to form on the genitals with painful symptoms.

Human papillomavirus 35

Infection with HPV is dangerous by the development of vicious processes in the body. Type 35 is diagnosed in both men and women, but only the latter causes serious problems.

Infection is indicated by condylomatous lesions of the perineum, external genitalia, anus and oral cavity (root of the tongue, inside of the cheek). Infection can lead to the development of dysplasia and cancerous processes in the cervix.

It is not so easy to cure HPV 35, therefore, special attention is given to preventive measures: protected sex, healthy lifestyle, strengthening the immune system, and more. If there is an infection, treatment consists of a set of techniques aimed at removing skin defects and suppressing papillomatosis activity.

Human papillomavirus 39

This genotype poses a serious danger and threat to life, as it contributes to the degeneration of healthy tissues into malignant ones. Women are most sensitive to HPV 39, as it causes damage to the internal genital organs. Infections can cause dysplasia and cervical cancer.

The infection may not appear in any way for a long period of time, consuming healthy tissue and increasing in size.

  • Symptoms of an external infection are skin growths on the inner wall of the vagina, the mucous membranes of the cervical canal, in the cervical area.
  • Less commonly, condylomas form on the external genitalia, also around the urethral exit or near the anus.
  • Neoplasms appear as single and multiple growths that externally resemble cauliflower.

Human papillomavirus 44

From an oncological point of view, HPV type 44 poses no danger. In this case, infection with this infection is indicated by genital warts and genital warts on the cervix and other vital organs.

Skin growth treatment is performed to eliminate aesthetic discomfort, that is, the neoplasm is removed. Also, all patients were given antiviral drugs and immunostimulants to suppress papillomatous infections in the body.

Human papillomavirus 45

Another representative of the group of oncogenic papillomaviruses with a high risk of degeneration is type 45. The infection is characterized by the following manifestations:

  • Genital warts.
  • Bowenoid papulosis.
  • Genital warts.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

Infection occurs during unprotected contact. A man is a carrier of the virus, while he may not know about it. In women, the infection manifests itself as a growth of fear on the genitals. The pathology is very dangerous for the female body and requires serious treatment. It can take more than 20 years from the moment of infection to the development of a malignant tumor caused by HPV 45.

In the diagnostic process, PCR, dygen testing, calcoscopy, biopsy and cytological studies are performed to identify the genotype of the pathogen. Treatment depends on the stage of the disease.

Human papillomavirus 51

This type of HPV belongs to anogenital infections with a moderate oncogenic risk. Infection is carried mainly through sexual intercourse and can cause the following problems:

  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Oncological lesions of the anus, vulva or vagina in women.
  • Malignant neoplasms of the anus and penis in men.
  • Genital warts.
  • Buschke-Levenshtein giant condyloma.

To diagnose HPV, 51 patients had to undergo a urogenital smear. With its help, clinical confirmation of the presence of infection in the body, genotype and risk assessment of malignancy is performed.

There is no drug specifically formulated to treat this type of infection. This therapy aims to prevent malignant transformation and mobilize the body’s antitumor immunity.

Human papillomavirus 52

According to medical statistics, HPV 52 is identified in 70% of cases in women over 35 years of age. Infections most often occur during unprotected sex. Painful conditions are associated with the following pathologies:

  • Genital warts and genital warts.
  • Colon cancer in men.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

It is impossible to cure the virus completely, but with early diagnosis and proper therapy, cells can be protected from destruction and malignancy. To do this, surgery to remove the growth, antiviral therapy and medication intake to strengthen the immune system is performed.

Human papillomavirus 53

Infection with HPV 53 is possible through contact with the mucous membranes or skin cells of an infected person. This genotype has low carcinogenicity and therefore does not pose a risk of malignant transformation.

Once infected, the virus can remain inactive for long periods of time. The action of various factors, for example, the weakness of the protective properties of the immune system causes its activation. Because of this, epidermal cells begin to actively divide, forming wart neoplasms and genital warts.

Treatment of papillomavirus type 53 is reduced to eliminate skin growths, take antiviral medications and strengthen immunity.

Human papillomavirus 56

One type of human papillomavirus infection is HPV 56. This type is characterized by high oncogenicity and is associated with the following pathologies:

  • Genital lesions are not condylomatosis.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.
  • Carcinoma of the mucous membranes of the genitals.

The virus is dangerous for both women and men, causing genital warts and other neoplasms. Penetration of the infection into the body occurs through the mucous membranes during unprotected sex or with open wound damage to the epidermis.

HPV 56 requires complex treatment. Therapy consists of taking antiviral medication, removing the growth surgically, and strengthening the immune system. Particular attention is paid to preventive measures to protect the body from infection.

Human papillomavirus 58

Viral pathogens from the average risk category of malignant transformation are type 58. The infection is included in the alpha group, that is, it contributes to the emergence of such pathologies:

  • Genital lesions are not condylomatosis.
  • Surface condyloma in the anus.
  • Dysplasia and cervical cancer.

Once introduced into the body, it provokes the appearance of small growths with a dense and soft structure. Depending on the location, the color is pink or light brown. This genotype is very often shown in the neck, in the armpits, in the intestines, external and internal genitals, and the bladder.

The danger of infection is due to latent latent processes. Because pathogens can be inactive for long periods of time. Timely diagnosis and an integrated approach to treatment can prevent complications of Type 58 Human papillomavirus.

Human papillomavirus 59

The HPV genotype 59 refers to an oncogenic virus. Under the action of certain factors, it can cause damage to the cervical tissue and uterine epithelium, which provokes precancerous conditions. Infection with this pathogen occurs with unprotected anal or vaginal contact, more rarely with oral sex.

Often, the infection does not manifest itself over a long period of time. But the appearance of growths and warts of the skin indicates its activation. Genital warts form on the external genitalia and their mucous membranes.

To diagnose a painful condition, viral DNA analysis and PCR are performed. Treatment consists of taking antiviral medication to suppress the infection.

Human papillomavirus 66

Often, the appearance of warts and papillomas on the body is associated with infection with papillomavirus type 66. In this case, the skin growth has the most inappropriate localization: armpits, perianal and periorbital areas, perineum, mucous membranes of the genitals.

Usually, after an infection, the infection is inactive for a long period of time. But under the action of certain factors, it is activated. These factors include:

  • Weakens the defenses of the immune system.
  • An unbalanced diet.
  • Bad habits.
  • Frequent sexual partner changes and unprotected sexual intercourse.
  • Not following the rules of personal hygiene.
  • Frequent abortions and more.

HPV 66 treatment aims to eliminate skin growth and eliminate the factors that provoke the spread of infection. Antiviral therapy and vitamins are taken to boost immunity. Preventive measures include vaccination, timely treatment of diseases and a healthy lifestyle.

Human papillomavirus 67

According to the study conducted, HPV type 67 belongs to the viruses with an average oncological degeneration status. That is, infection with this genotype, in certain circumstances, can give rise to precancerous conditions.

The infection penetrates the mucous membranes and damaged skin. Infection is indicated by papillomatous growths on the body. Growths can also form on the mucous membranes of the cervix.

Human papillomavirus 68

68 HPV genotypes have low oncogenicity and are indicated by skin growths from various localizations. The spread of strong disabilities and their frequent trauma is dangerous. Since at this stage, viral DNA replaces healthy cells, changing their structure. If the problem is left without medical attention, then the active development of type 68 papillomavirus can lead to carcinoma.